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tv   Global 3000  PBS  May 19, 2018 12:30am-1:01am PDT

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would-be sailors, whose homes are being destroyed by the sea. we visit a young woman from china who is intent on making her fortune online. and we're off to northern brazil, now home to more and more people trying to escape venezuela. for years, the south american nation of venezuela has been mired in crisis. mismanagement and corruption have brought the country to the brink. people are starving, local shops are often empty. there are regular anti-government protests. and those who can, leave. according to the international organization for migration,
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almost 1.6 million venezuelans have fled the country. most to neighboring colombia. hundreds of thousands of others have left for the u.s. and chile. and a growing number are now heading to brazil. reporter: many have been on the road for days. those who could afford it took a bus part of the way. they've now, finally, reached brazil. desperate venezuelans who no longer see any future back home. >> we have no money. in venezuela you can no longer make enough money to survive. it might be enough to buy one chicken a month. reporter: pacaraima -- the border between brazil and venezuela -- is a gateway. it's also become a hub of smuggling and illicit commerce. most venezuelan refugees pass through here in search of a better life in brazil. jenny romero and her children
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have made it across. they come from the city of el tigre in the north of their troubled homeland. they say the situation there is unbearable. jenny: there is no work at all there anymore. it was very hard. reporter: jenny is looking for her husband, jesus. he left months ago, like tens of thousands of other venezuelans. many of those fleeing are marked by disease, hunger, and hardship. they find him. the family is relieved to be reunited. jesus: i am so happy. i missed them so much. it's very emotional after such a long time. we haven't seen each other for four months.
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i missed them terribly. reporter: the north brazilian city of boa vista is a main contact point for the refugees. every day, hundreds arrive. the city can barely cope with the influx. the brazilian government has started resettling refugees in other cities across the country. the new arrivals can be seen everywhere trying to sell something or looking for work that usually isn't there. still, the conditions here are nowhere near as bad as those in venezuela. >> you can't even get a diaper there. and when you can, you can't afford it. you can't get milk for your baby either. reporter: boa vista is buckling under the pressure and needs help. the u.n. has set up additional reception camps and brazil's government has provided millions in the form of a relief program. here, at least food staples are guaranteed. but the challenges are mounting.
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luiz: many venezuelans come, often in a terrible state. they reach us starving. they have health problems and have had to endure a precarious situation in terms of security. the children need education, some need protection, they've been the victims of violence and exploitation. there are also many unaccompanied children. reporter: the effects of venezuela's humanitarian crisis have long been felt in neighboring brazil. genesis: i have three children, one of whom is disabled. we couldn't get any treatment at home, no medicine. it's hard for one person to survive there, but with three children it's impossible. i came here hoping to make some money. i know there aren't many opportunities, but at least we have something to eat here. reporter: and, for the time
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being, they have somewhere to stay and some medical assistance. but the prospects of finding work in northern brazil are slim. genesis: so far, i haven't found anything, no way to make money. i'd do anything. cleaning, anything. i'm ready, and i can learn anything. reporter: she now wants to make her way south, perhaps to sao paulo where there are more job opportunities. jesus and his family have had more luck. we find them here. jesus has found a job in a small workshop, and the owner has provided jesus and his family with a room right next to the workshop. the opportunity is a new beginning for jenny, jesus and their children. jenny: right now it's all about getting a foothold here, and getting the kids into school. we just want stability, a normal
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life. reporter: fresh hope for the family here in brazil. the romeros can't say whether they will ever return to venezuela. for now, they see little chance the situation back home will improve. host: natural disasters are another reason many people are forced to uproot. in 2016 alone, all over the globe, catastrophes forced 23.5 million from their homes. in the pacific, the nation of kiribati has a population of around 150,000. but many of its islands are gradually sinking into the sea, making the future uncertain. the encroaching sea water is also salting up groundwater sources, threatening staple crops. many families are in a precarious situation.
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reporter: it's the first roll call of the day at the marine training center for sailors on betio island. at 6:00 aof exercise.breakfast, the center has been around for more than half-a-century. it was co-founded by a german shipping company. today it's run by the kiribati government. rubeaua: i'm in training here because i would like to work on the high seas. i want to earn money to support my family. i'm interested in japan. i would like to see what it's like there, and how they fish. reporter: rubeaua is in the first row. but, as with all the trainees here, he's just a number. still, many of the candidates are excited about their future.
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few have ever sailed beyond the horizon. this man says the training here will equip him to work on any kind of fishing boat. it doesn't matter whether it's a trawler or a vessel that fishes long line. we ask if he's been to another country before. no, he says. this man says he's looking forward to working on a german ship later on. he says it might be a cargo ship or some other vessel, he doesn't really mind. most of the trainees here want to one day work for the spms, or south pacific marine service. it's a german joint enterprise involving six different companies which all take candidates that have finished the training. the director of spms is captain andrew heinzen. he says all the young men here have grown up with the ocean, which is something the shipping industry values.
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but in his experience, another factor often stands in the way of better-paid positions at sea. andrew: discipline is the main problem. and also trying to explain time and clocks to the mariners. in europe, or in maritime navigation, we have totally different times, and totally different temporal rhythms. and we have to try to teach this to the trainees who want to be sailors. host: after six months of training, rubeaua, or f-11, will be qualified to work on the deck of a tuna trawler. 18 months of study is required to work on the bridge. but that's too long for f-11. even though he's only in his early 20's, he will soon have to provide for three generations of his family. working on a vessel will mean long periods away from home. rubeaua: it will be very sad to no longer see my family.
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but this school is the opportunity to save my parents. it's the only way i can help myself and others. reporter: now that climate change is threatening traditional livelihoods, the potential income has never been more important. the mtc training is rigorous, with a strong emphasis on discipline. sunday is the only day off. each week, rubeaua leaves the school on the hour-long boat ride to his home village. on the ocean side, waves are eroding the island's foundation. only the shore of the lagoon remains intact. mtc trainers drop him off. the family subsists on what nature provides. the government buys up copra or dried coconut meat, but yields
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have been sinking year after year. rising water temperatures and sea levels also have an effect on marine life. now when rubeaua's father goes fishing, he often only brings home seaweed. tabeia: everything is changing. we are catching fewer fish, regardless of which kind. other sea life is also disappearing. and on land, we have erosion. water from the well is growing salty, and the coconut palms produce very few coconuts nowadays. rubeaua: i'm really worried. what's happening here because of climate change when i'm not around. i'm afraid everything will change. reporter: kiribati is one of the poorest countries in the world. and climate change is making it even poorer.
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rubeaua will soon have what others don't, a job so he can support his family. but he's paying a high price to have one. host: this week in global ideas, we head to southwestern uganda, to the mpanga river. the once-beautiful waterway has been a dumping ground for sewage and waste, and the rich vegetation along its banks has been destroyed. but things are starting to change. our reporter julius mugambwa headed to the small town of fort portal. there, he met people determined to revive their ailing river. julius: there wasn't always as much rubbish in and around the mpanga river, that's what locals say. but the problem has become worse and worse. the garbage now blocks the flow of the river and pollutes the water. to clean it up, these days,
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everyone pitches in, with locals from fort portal in western uganda coming together once a month to collect garbage. as head of a local conservation group, edgar muganzi successfully raised awareness of the problem. to start with, he had to contend with a lot of reluctance. edgar: it is a problem dumping within the buffer zones of the river, even outside the river, by the way. as you walk around you will realize that waste management is still a problem in fort portal. as we are doing this work, we don't do it ourselves. we involve leadership because they are the ones with authority, we involve the communities. julius: the quality of the river's water is crucial for the region. originating in the mountains, it irrigates the fields around fort portal and flows into lake
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george, a regional fishing hub. but large swathes of land along the river have been deforested, causing widespread erosion. the only intact forest left is in the kibale national park. it's home to some 1400 chimpanzees, making it one of their most important habitats in uganda. their survival depends on a functioning clean water supply. if the river is degraded, regional biodiversity will suffer. getting the general public interested in conservation was no easy task. most of the locals live in poverty. environmental protection has to make economic sense if it's going to catch on. so muganzi works as both conservationist and financial adviser. he explains to locals how to save and invest their money. edgar: that is one entry
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strategy that we used. it is an entry strategy into the community, because we came and everyone was doing their own thing, so the strategy was to let them come together, find common activities together so that we were able to bring in our other issues like environment protection, tree planting, eco-san constructions, but the other thing that mostly brings them together is the saving. julius: every thursday, locals come together in a savings community. they pay in what they've earned, and can lend money to one another. edgar: they already have successful stories. some people borrow to go and make their own businesses, however small they are, but they are so meaningful, and they have an impact on their lives. julius: the savings community now has 150 members. in return for their membership privileges, they take part in garbage collection and reforestation efforts. thanks to the community, some local farmers have been able to establish a successful second
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line of business. maria-goretti beguma is another member of the savings community who has managed to set up a business with a loan. the mother of six used to farm a providing for her family. without muganzi's financial advice, she would never have taken that step. maria-goretti: i deposited 100,000 shillings with the savings group, and later i was able to borrow 200,000. i used that money to buy items for my store. by reselng them, i make a profit. julius: muganzi collects seedlings of native trees in the national park, which he plants along the river as part of the reforestation efforts. he set up a nursery where the saplings are carefully tended for a few weeks, before they're ready to plant.
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muganzi and the savings community have planted 18,000 trees so far. local authorities provide support in the form of funds and land. today, the conservationist is on his way to give a talk to schoolchildren. ensuring a clean water supply, keeping forests intact, and preventing ground erosion -- those are the cornerstones of his message to the next generation. muganzi has taken that message into 20 schools. he doesn't even need to offer these young people financial incentives to spark their interest. around 2000 of them belong to environment clubs. he says it's much harder to convince adults of the
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importance of environmental issues than young people. he's pinning his hopes on them to make a difference. edgar: if you want anything good, it has to start with the children because they are the ones going to manage these natural resources in the future, so the moment they start when they are still young, you inculcate that culture of environment, that culture of conservation when they are still young, so they will grow knowing it's very important to protect the environment. julius: with their help, he's confident he can reach his target. in the next few years, edgar muganzi is hoping to plant a million trees. host: china is not only the world's most populous country, it's also a colossus when it comes to the internet. whether playing games, listening to music, shopping or watching
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videos, more than 830 million chinese will spend time online this year. in the u.s., that figure is about 275 million. live streaming is booming in china. the sector is forecast to bring in $10.6 billion in 2018. no wonder then that many young chinese are hoping to make it big on one of the nation's many streaming platforms. reporter: it's a nationwide craze, a non-stop talent show that everyone wants to take part in. video selfies of random people singing, busting a move, while others are happy simply presenting to the world their everyday lives, what they're eating today, what makes them laugh. live streaming is a mass phenomenon in china. everyone is chasing viewers. for some it's just for fun, but
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others are looking for fame and fortune. beijing-based linlin is just starting out in her career as a live streamer. the 22-year-old studied management in singapore. back in china she got a job at a state-owned enterprise, but saw little future there. guo: i don't want to be tied down by my job. i love my freedom. live streaming is a new industry. i want to try it out and find out what i can do. reporter: linlin hopes this agency in beijing will help her make her dreams come true. the company has rows and rows of small studios, and some 9000 live streamers under contract. their job is to build up the biggest possible fan base. after passing an audition, linlin now streams for six hours
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a day. more than 200 million chinese visit live streaming platforms. linlin only has around 1000 viewers so far, but she answers messages, sings and chats about her daily life. even while eating, she's still streaming. as a newcomer, she doesn't earn much. unlike this man. xinxin is getting ready next door. he's a star of the industry, with more than a million followers. after college, he wanted to work in fashion, sang in bars, but then tried live streaming to earn more money. meng: when i started, i wasn't natural. a lot of people didn't like me, and i hardly had any fans. then my friends told me just to be myself. since then it's been going great. reporter: an assistant with a phone keeps a record of the digital gifts that fans send in. that's where the money is. they range from virtual racing cars to roses and rings. cheap ones cost less than a
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euro, but the fancier versions are priced at several hundred. successful live streamers can earn upwards of 6000 euros a month. some top stars have even become millionaires. most barely manage to make ends meet. linlin's agent gives her tips while she's streaming. the agency takes a cut of the digital gifts and helps the streamers improve their marketing. zhang: to make it as a live streamer, women in particular have to be good looking, and they need communication skills. men also need to look good, but mostly their streaming has to be funny. they need a good sense of humor. reporter: anyone who doesn't quite meet beauty standards can be made better looking. filters can make the chin smaller, skin smoother, eyes wider.
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linlin also looks different on screen. live streaming gets the nation talking. but china's rigid censorship system means nothing can be said, written or performed which could be deemed offensive or obscene by the communist party. anyone who doesn't play by the rules quickly discovers that critical keywords and chats are blocked by software and company employees. several platforms have been shut down. the party leadership supports live streaming because the industry creates jobs. even so, red lines may not be crossed. not by fans, either. kelvin: platform users mostly care about games, entertainment and personal presentations. the main thing is that it's not political. in other words, they keep away from politics, pornography and religion.
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reporter: china's state media are calling for stricter guidelines, because some live streamers are becoming ever more reckless. last year, a 26-year-old rooftopper died falling off a skyscraper while filming a video selfie. linlin is no daredevil. she wants to make people laugh. hours of streaming have left her exhausted, but she still has to debrief with her agent. she needs to learn to deal with online abuse. guo: if someone says i'm ugly, i say there must be something wrong with their eyes and they need to see a doctor until they think i'm beautiful. that's how i react to nasty comments, i'm a bit ironic. reporter: then it's back to business. many streaming stars take at least a year to build up a good following, and that's encouraging for linlin. but most live streamers give up at some point, and disappear from the screen as quickly as they arrived. and no wonder. it's a crowded field.
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>> who cares about the flower industry's destructive impacts? >> i do. >> who cares about lgbt rights in australia? >> i do. >> who cares about homeless people living on the streets of los angeles? >> i do. >> who cares that your superberries are destroying the rainforest? >> i do. >> who care about female empowerment in senegal? >> i do. all: and that's why i follow dw but we love hearing from you, so write to us at and check out our facebook page. see you soon, and till then, take care. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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steves: from the destruction of world war ii, europe has steadily rebuilt itself into a forward-looking and united continent. with the creation of the european union, economic integration has made another devastating war unthinkable.
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there has been a massive investment in cutting-edge infrastructure projects. efficient high-speed rail systems tie europe together. superhighways and stunning bridges further enhance the continent-wide transportation system. within cities, sleek subways move millions underground. on the streets above, public transit reduces traffic congestion. and nearly every city is creating traffic-free pedestrian zones, making urban life even more people-friendly. as the world grapples with climate change, europe is taking a leading role in developing alternative energy sources.
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and while still preserving the historic character of its cities, europe has found a way to integrate innovative architecture into the landscape, giving the old world a modern face. and the human face of contemporary europe is more diverse and vibrant than ever. even as this continent of 500 million people unites, it's finding ways to allow its rich mix of cultures to celebrate their unique identities. from norway to greece and from portugal to bulgaria, people are proud to preserve their distinct languages, foods, and traditions.
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- [female voice over]: this program is made possible in part by the town of marion, home of the wayne henderson school of appalachian arts, celebrating 21 years as a certified virginia main street community. the historic general francis marion hotel and the speak easy restaurant and lounge, providing accommodations and casual fine dining in downtown marion, virginia. the bank of marion. technology powered, service driven. wbrf 98.1 fm. and bryant label, a proud supporter of our region's musical heritage. ("cherokee shuffle" by gerald anderson) ♪


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